Capacity Focus is a biannual magazine published by the African Development Institute. Its objective is to provide a forum to share opinions, view and insights on various issues pertinent to capacity development in Africa. The articles of the magazine also aim to reinforce the role of the African Development Bank (AfDB) as the leading development enabler on the continent. The magazine presents capacity development approaches and strategies, shares the views of executive directors on capacity development as well analysis and perspectives from contributors from Regional Member Countries of the AfDB including different sectors and themes related to the AfDB’s interventions. Other items bring to the fore the importance of exchanging and brokering knowledge with a special emphasis on the e-learning and the communities of practice. Articles also report on the Institute’s flagship learning activities including workshops, seminar policy dialogue policy initiatives, partnership and networking
To reach a reasonable level of sustainable development, every society needs to integrate technologies in a carefully planned manner. As Africa pursues an agenda of transformation, there is an urgent need to bridge the knowledge and capacity gaps in many countries and sectors. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) called for a new global partnership for development using science and technology to address the problems facing the poor. The governments of many African countries recognized the need to reorient their national science, technology and innovation policies in order to serve developmental needs more effectively and coherently. A recent report jointly published by the United Nations Commission for Africa, the African Development Bank, the African Union and the United Nations Development Programme points to noteworthy progress on technology indicators (UNECA, 2015) largely attributable to great advances made in the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Africa.
As Africa pursues the transformation agenda, there is urgent need to bridge the knowledge and capacity gap that exists in many countries and sectors. For any society to reach a reasonable level of sustainable development, a carefully planned integration of technologies would be required. To achieve this level of technological advancement, Africa needs to create innovative processes not only in the acquisition or development of new technologies, but also in the diffusion, so that it eventually finds social and economic application throughout the system.
By Foster Ofosu, Capacity Development Specialist at the African Development Bank Group
Whereas developed countries have exploited innovation milieus (system) to develop new technologies and improve on old ones, in the case of Africa the path to technological development has been one of acquisition, utilisation, adoption and (it is hoped) diffusion. To attain the objective of both social and economic inclusiveness requires recognition of the role of knowledge in the achievement of the ultimate objective of poverty reduction and sustainable development. An understanding of the African socio-cultural environment and its application in the development agenda should have a far-reaching impact on African societies.
ICT developments in Africa over the last decade have opened doors to skills and capacity development, and are today providing the continent with the tools to leapfrog the traditional development trajectory by adopting appropriate technologies. On the back of this, collaborative efforts in the development of innovation at national level have been the subject of discussion among policymakers, entrepreneurs, academics, practitioners and researchers. Such discussions have led to a proliferation of models such as the innovation clusters and national systems of innovation. The focus of these models all work towards developing the innovative capacities of organisations within the national and, in some cases, regional concentrations. Although some of these models have found practical application in, for example, the explosion of innovation centres of excellence in ICT across Africa, the exact linkages between and among the differing actors begets a consensus and commonality of purpose.
Today there are well over 200 technology hubs across Africa aimed at promoting ‘technopreneurship’. One witnesses interesting stories about individuals and small startups making headlines for mobile applications. I commend all the young ‘technoprenurs’ putting Africa on the global innovation and technology map. But that is one side of the story. Successful innovations extend beyond creativity.
The second part of the story is the utilisation and adoption of these technologies even within the societies in which they are developed. There have been successful stories of commercialisation of technologies made in Africa. Notable among them is M-Pesa, which has revolutionised and expanded financial service delivery in Africa through the innovative use of mobile phones. In the healthcare sector, mPedigree, a Ghanaian tech firm, is making significant impact in the mobile anti-counterfeit drug system. We are yet to witness such large scale diffusion of technologies in the education and training sector.
Technological change is at the heart of social and economic transformation more so in the modern knowledge society. Unlike industrial technologies, the knowledge economy requires technologies as input and output of value creation. Developments in ICT should move beyond creativity to successful adoption and diffusion of Africa-made technologies throughout society. How can this be achieved?
For ICT to promote inclusive growth and sustainable development there is a need to move the landscape from stakeholders within nations and between nations working independently to a more collaborative system of innovations across sectors. Africa needs to explore new avenues to enhance technological innovations. Africa should create an environment that will facilitate local, national and international initiatives to develop new technologies for tackling some of the numerous socio-economic challenges. Sustainable development also requires sustainable technologies that are economically viable, socially needed, relevant and accepted.
Whereas the individual technopreneurs and the private sector should remain the main source of technological innovation, it is important for African societies to develop a system of linkages at the level of policy (government), international organisations, universities, research institutions and civil society to create, apply and diffuse ICT for skills development and capacity building in Africa.
In accordance with the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action, the African Development Bank has made capacity development an imperative for development in Africa. Capacity development is at the core of the activities of development stakeholders, including governments, development partners, the private sector as well as civil society.. The launch of the Capacity Focus is part of this effort to effectively share knowledge on capacity development in Africa. The aim is to bring capacity development issues that are relevant to Africa to a wider audience than heretofore, by connecting knowledge, learning, and innovation
The African Development Bank (AfDB) has embraced a new approach to development that puts innovation at the centre in the delivery of Bank projects at both the staff and client levels. The Bank sees its role as not only that of a financier and policy advisor but also as a promoter of knowledge and innovation.
By Foster N. Ofosu, Capacity Development Specialist. African Development Bank Group
This is implied in most areas of its operations, as indicated by the Ten Year Strategy of 2013 -2022, as well as its sector strategies. Recently, the Bank has established a next-generation approach whose goal is to unleash a new wave of development and growth shared by all. The vision is captured in five objectives – the High 5 Goals: feeding Africa, lighting up Africa, industrializing Africa integrating Africa, and improving the quality of life in Africa.
Two observable demographic trends in Africa today are the rising proportion of youth and the high skill levels. With almost 200 million people aged between 15 and 24, Africa has the youngest population in the world – and it keeps growing rapidly and getting better educated. On the other side of the good story, African countries are at the forefront of global economic growth. So on one hand we have a growing educated population and growing economies. This, however, is as far as the good news goes. The problem in Africa may not be the lack of employment as measured by current global methodologies, but rather underemployment and lack of decent jobs. Therefore, when discussing the creation of jobs for the youth, emphasis has to be put on decent, well-paying jobs.
The African Development Bank’s vision of expanding opportunities and unlocking potentials will only be achieved through a retooling of knowledge and skill-sets. Today’s youth have a responsibility for delivering on the High 5 Goals. To realize this vision, a plan for training, incubating financing, and implementation is needed. Youth engagement throughout the design and implementation process is critical for success.
To promote the empowerment of young Africans to engage in the development process, the African Development Bank seeks to contribute to youth employment through entrepreneurship and capacity development on the Continent. The role of the AfDB in this process is envisaged as
ICT should be recognized as both an input, and output of innovation. The emergence of technology hubs across the Continent, as well as the growing efforts by young African “techpreneurs” in developing mobile applications to solve health, education, financial inclusion, agriculture, and other socio-economic challenges all point to evidence of ICTs as outputs of the innovation and entrepreneurship processes.
I believe Africa not only needs to do more in utilizing ICT in the development of skills and entrepreneurs, but also has to manage ICT properly as an input to achieve the development goals as set by the AfDB. For example, techpreneurs should receive support that fosters the adoption and diffusion of mobile applications, while simultaneously allowing them to continue growing their ventures. Currently, there is growing evidence that although individual technpreneurs are winning awards and being celebrated outside the Continent, the adoption and diffusion of home-grown mobile applications need to be further supported and promoted. Another example is the use of ICT for developing entrepreneurial skills and supporting start-ups. Though ICT has been successfully deployed in formal education at various levels, there is still scope to expand the use of technologies to train young entrepreneurs.
To achieve the desired outcome of leveraging ICTS as both inputs and outputs, Africa needs to develop the capacity of its youth to innovate. Innovative capacity holds the key to unlocking Africa’s potential and achieving inclusive growth and sustainable development. The Innovative Capacity Approach includes a series of activities aimed at building the abilities of African youth to develop home-grown technological, marketing, processing, and organizational innovations for value addition. The concept of innovative capacity creates avenues that enable individuals and organisations to
In the context of entrepreneurship, we need to build the capacity (and support) in various realms of innovation:
To address some of these issues, the AfDB has recently initiated the Innovation and Youth Entrepreneurship Support Programme (iYes), which will back African youth in creating and growing innovative ventures and technologies. The capacity- building interventions include
The iYes Programme makes use of distance and eLearning as part of the process, in addition to face-to-face interventions. Additionally, the programme is designed to address the innovative capacity gaps in the four areas and at the same time emphasise the element of growth to ensure the commercialisation and diffusion of home-grown technologies for the achievement of the High 5 Goals.
Recognizing the advantages that E-Learning can bring to the development and delivery of training within and outside the Bank, the African Development
Institute committed to integrating ELearning into its capacity building activities within the Bank and in the Regional Member Countries. A well-designed and functional ELearning environment would richly enhance training in terms of width and breadth through improved efficiency and cost effectiveness.
by Foster Ofosu, Distance and eLearning Specialist. African Development Bank
Today, the whole world is very bullish about Africa: a decade ago, a respected magazine called Africa the hopeless continent; now even it is acknowledging that Africa is rising. Sub-Saharan Africa’s growth momentum has been maintained over the past two decades and the prognosis is good. Despite substantial progress in reforming the overall policy environment it would appear that many African countries may not achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This is partly attributable to their weak capacity in public and private sectors in Africa, which is acknowledged as a major impediment to the attainment of poverty reduction goals. It is therefore evident that no matter the amount of financial resources mobilised for Africa’s development, such funds will yield only limited or modest results if countries do not have the human, organisational and institutional capacity to absorb and effectively utilise them.
by Foster Ofosu, Distance and eLearning Specialist. African Development Bank
The landscape for education, training and skill development in Africa has changed drastically over the last 50 years. Africa has made meaningful headway in expanding access to education and training although opinion is still divided over whether quality and relevance have kept pace with access. Despite the successes achieved, Africa still remains the continent with the lowest access to education and training compared to other regions.
Today Africa is provided with tools in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to leapfrog the traditional development trajectory by adopting appropriate technologies, relevant methodologies to develop and deliver content that meets the needs of the continent. The ICT revolution in Africa is rapidly increasing connectivity across the continent, which also benefits capacity development activities. Internet broadband penetration has risen rapidly, from a meagre 0.1% of the population in 2000 to an estimated 7% in 2010. By 2060, coverage is projected to rise dramatically to 99% of the African population. In addition, mobile technology has permeated all regions of the continent with Africa witnessing one of the fastest growing mobile subscriptions in the world.
Recognising this trend, the African Development Bank’s recently approved Ten Year Strategy covering the period 2013-2022 recognises the significant leverage of relevant research and knowledge generated by regional and sub-regional institutions. The core mandate of the African Development Bank is development financing but we have also recognised that our success in achieving the ultimate objective of poverty reduction and sustainable development in Africa depends critically on the depth and wealth of our knowledge of the development challenges facing the Continent and individual African Regional Member Country (RMC).
The capacity development objectives as encapsulated in the Capacity Development Strategy, whose timeframe was 2010-2014, are as follow:
To meet our operational objectives and to help create a knowledge-based environment in Africa, the African Development Bank has embarked on an eLearning Initiative to expand the width, breadth and relevance of its capacity development activities. We believe that the implementation of an effective eLearning platform, access and content would directly make training more available to a wider audience. The eInstitute Portal is a virtual knowledge and learning space for knowledge brokerage. The portal is created to manage the Bank’s outreach through distance and eLearning and to build a culture of continuous learning through a community of practice and regular knowledge exchange.
The capacity development landscape is slowly changing. Technologies are advancing in Africa, the Bank is continually working with other stakeholders in the industry in Africa and beyond and people are embracing new approaches to training and learning. All that is needed is a more harmonised approach to getting people, technologies and content together to achieve a new level of capacity development.